People  | Sylvain Gandon

1919, route de Mende
34293 Montpellier 5
Tel : +33/0 4 67 61 33 18
Fax : +33/0 4 67 41 21 38


DR2 - CNRS Montpellier (2002 - present)
HDR (2007)
Wellcome Trust Fellowship in Mathematical Biology - Edinburgh University (2000-2002)
PhD in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Paris VI University (2000)

Awards and grants

ERC Starting Grant Fellowship (2010-2014)
ANR jeune chercheur (2008-2011)
Young Investigator' Prize - American Society of Naturalists (2002)

Editorial work

Associate Editor for Evolution (2009-2011)
Associate Editor for Proceedings of the Royal Society London B (2012-2014)


in press

Chabas H., Nicot A., Meaden S., Westra E., Tremblay D., Pradier L., Lion S., Moineau S. & Gandon S. (in press) Variability in the durability of CRISPR-Cas immunity. Philosophical Transactions B.


Ansaldi M., Debarbieux L., Gandon S., Petit M., Tavares P. & Boulanger P. (2018) "French phage network" -- third meeting report. Viruses. 10(3): 123. [doi]

Böhme U. & 16 others (2018) Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage-specific evolution in birds and mammals. Genome Research. 28(4): 547-560. [doi]

Chabas H., Lion S., Nicot A., Meaden S., van Houte S., Moineau S., Wahl L. M., Westra E. R. & Gandon S. (2018) Evolutionary emergence of infectious diseases in heterogeneous host populations. PLoS Biology. 16(9): e2006738. [pdf] [doi]

Gandon S. (2018) Evolution and manipulation of vector host choice. The American Naturalist. [doi]

Landsberger M., Gandon S., Meaden S., Rollie C., Chevallereau A., Chabas H., Buckling A., Westra E. R. & van Houte S. (2018) Anti-crispr phages cooperate to overcome crispr-cas immunity. Cell. 174(4): 908-916. [doi]

Parsons T. L., Lambert A., Day T. & Gandon S. (2018) Pathogen evolution in finite populations: slow and steady spreads the best. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 15(147): 135. [doi]

Pigeault R., Caudron Q., Nicot A., Rivero A. & Gandon S. (2018) Timing malaria transmission with mosquito fluctuations. Evolution Letters. 378-389. [doi]

Rivero A. & Gandon S. (2018) Evolutionary ecology of avian malaria: past to present. Trends in Parasitology. 34: 712-726. [doi]


Bourret V., Lyall J., Frost S. D. W., Teillaud A., Smith C. A., Leclaire S., Fu J., Gandon S., Guérin J. & Tiley L. S. (2017) Adaptation of avian influenza virus to a swine host. Virus evolution. 3(1): vex007. [doi]

Gandon S. & Lion S. (2017) Ebola evolution during the 2013-2016 outbreak. Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology. 100019. [doi]

Gandon S. & Mirrahimi S. (2017) A Hamilton–Jacobi method to describe the evolutionary equilibria in heterogeneous environments and with non-vanishing effects of mutations. Comptes Rendus Mathematique. 355(2): 155-160. [doi]

Torres-Barceló C., Kaltz O., Froissart R., Gandon S., Ginet N. & Ansaldi M. (2017) "French phage network" -- second meeting report. Viruses. 9(4): 87. [doi]


Gandon S. (2016) Why be temperate: lessons from bacteriophage lambda. Trends in Microbiology. 24(5): 356-365. [pdf] [doi]

Gandon S., Day T., Metcalf C. J. E. & Grenfell B. (2016) Forecasting epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of infectious diseases. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 31: 776-788. [pdf] [doi]

Lion S. & Gandon S. (2016) Spatial evolutionary epidemiology of spreading epidemics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 283: 20161170. [pdf] [doi] [som]

Pigeault R., Garnier R., Rivero A. & Gandon S. (2016) Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B. [doi]

van Houte S. & 10 others (2016) The diversity-generating benefits of a prokaryotic adaptive immune system. Nature. 532(7599): 385-388. [pdf] [doi]


Berngruber T., Lion S. & Gandon S. (2015) Spatial structure, transmission modes and the evolution of viral exploitation strategies. PLos Pathogens. 11(4): e1004810. [pdf] [doi] [som]

Griette Q., Raoul G. & Gandon S. (2015) Virulence evolution at the front line of spreading epidemics. Evolution. 69(11): 2810-2819. [pdf] [doi]

Lion S. & Gandon S. (2015) Evolution of spatially structured host-parasite interactions. Journal of evolutionary biology. 28(1): 10-28. [pdf] [doi]

Park A. W., Haven J., Kaplan R. & Gandon S. (2015) Refugia and the evolutionary epidemiology of drug resistance. Biology letters. 11(11): [pdf] [doi]

Pigeault R., Vézilier J., Nicot A., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2015) Transgenerational effect of infection in plasmodium-infected mosquitoes. Biology Letters. 11: 20141025. [pdf] [doi]

Pigeault R., Vézilier J., Cornet S., Zélé F., Nicot A., Perret P., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2015) Avian malaria: a new lease of life for an old experimental model to study the evolutionary ecology of Plasmodium. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 370(1675): 20140330. [pdf] [doi]

Pigeault R., Nicot R., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2015) Mosquito age and avian malaria infection. Malaria journal. 14: 383. [pdf] [doi]

Vale P. F., Lafforgue G., Gatchitch F., Gardan R., Moineau S. & Gandon S. (2015) Costs of CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 282(1812): 20151270. [pdf] [doi]

Vézilier J., Nicot A., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2015) Plasmodium infection brings forward mosquito oviposition. Biology Letters. 11(3): 20140840. [pdf] [doi]


Blanquart F. & Gandon S. (2014) On the evolution of migration in heterogeneous environments. Evolution. 68: 1617-1628. [pdf] [doi] [som]

Cornet S., Nicot A., Rivero A. & Gandon S. (2014) Evolution of plastic transmission strategies in avian malaria. PLoS Pathogens. 10(9): e1004308. [pdf] [doi]

Gandon S. & Vale P. F. (2014) The evolution of resistance against good and bad infections. Journal of evolutionary biology. 27: 303-3012. [pdf] [doi]

Garnier R., Gandon S., Harding K. C. & Boulinier T. (2014) Length of intervals between epidemics: evaluating the influence of maternal transfer of immunity. Ecology and Evolution. [pdf] [doi]

Zélé F., Vézilier J., L'Ambert G., Nicot A., Gandon S., Rivero A. & Duron O. (2014) Dynamics of prevalence and diversity of avian malaria infections in wild Culex pipiens mosquitoes: the effects of Wolbachia, filarial nematodes and insecticide resistance. Parasites and Vectors. 7(437): [pdf] [doi]


Berngruber T. W., Lion S. & Gandon S. (2013) Evolution of suicide as a defense strategy against pathogens in a spatially structured environment. Ecology Letters. 16: 446-453. Access the recommendation on F1000Prime [pdf] [doi] [som]

Berngruber T. W., Froissart R., Choisy M. & Gandon S. (2013) Evolution of virulence in emerging epidemics. PLoS Pathogens. 9: e1003209. [pdf] [doi]

Blanquart F., Kaltz O., Nuismer S. L. & Gandon S. (2013) A practical guide to measuring local adaptation. Ecology Letters. 16: 1195-1205. [pdf] [doi] [som]

Cornet S., Rivero A. & Gandon S. (2013) Malaria infection increases bird attractiveness to uninfected mosquitoes. Ecology Letters. 16(3): 323-329. Access the recommendation on F1000Prime [pdf] [doi]

Cornet S., Nicot A., Rivero A. & Gandon S. (2013) Both infected and uninfected mosquitoes are attracted toward malaria infected birds. Malaria journal. 12(179): [pdf] [doi]

Cornet S., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2013) Patterns of phenoloxidase activity in insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes differ between laboratory-selected and wild-caught individuals. Parasites and Vectors. 6(315): [pdf] [doi]

Débarre F., Ronce O. & Gandon S. (2013) Quantifying the effects of migration and mutation on adaptation and demography in spatially heterogeneous environments. Journal of evolutionary biology. 26: 1185-1202. [pdf] [doi]

Garnier R., Boulinier T. & Gandon S. (2013) Evolution of the temporal persistence of immune protection. Biology Letters. 9: [pdf] [doi]

Garnier R., Gandon S., Chaval Y., Charbonnel N. & Boulinier T. (2013) Evidence of cross-transfer of maternal antibodies through allosuckling in a mammal: potential importance for behavioral ecology. Mammalian Biology. 78: 361-364. [pdf] [doi]

Lélu M., Langlais M., Poulle M., Gilot-Fromont E. & Gandon S. (2013) When should a trophically and vertically transmitted parasite manipulate its intermediate host? The case of Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. [pdf] [doi]

Vitalis R., Rousset F., Kobayashi Y., Olivieri I. & Gandon S. (2013) The joint evolution of dispersal and dormancy in a metapopulation with local extinctions and kin competition. Evolution. 67: 1676-1691. [pdf] [doi]


Blanquart F., Gandon S. & Nuismer S. (2012) The effects of migration and drift on local adaptation to a heterogeneous environment. Journal of evolutionary biology. 15: 1351–1363. [pdf]

Blanquart F. & Gandon S. (2012) Time-shift experiments and patterns of adaptation across time and space. Ecology Letters. [pdf] [doi]

Day T. & Gandon S. (2012) Evolutionary epidemiology of multilocus drug resistance. Evolution. 66(5): 1582-1587. [pdf] [doi]

Débarre F., Lion S., van Baalen M. & Gandon S. (2012) Evolution of host life-history traits in a spatially structured host-parasite system. The American Naturalist. 179(1): 52-63. [pdf] [doi] [som]

Gandon S., Hochberg M. E., Holt R. D. & Day T. (2012) What limits the evolutionary emergence of pathogens? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. [pdf]

Garnier R., Boulinier T. & Gandon S. (2012) Coevolution between maternal transfer of immunity and other resistance strategies against pathogens. Evolution. 66(10): 3067-3078. [pdf] [doi]

Pascua L. L., Gandon S. & Buckling A. (2012) Abiotic heterogeneity drives parasite local adaptation in coevolving bacteria and phages. Journal of evolutionary biology. 25(1): 187-195. [pdf] [doi]

Vale P. F., Choisy M., Froissart R., Sanjuan R. & Gandon S. (2012) The distribution of mutational fitness effects of phage φx174 on different hosts. Evolution. 66(11): 3495-3507. F1000 Article [pdf] [doi]

Vézilier J., Nicot A., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2012) Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 279: 4033-4041. [pdf] [doi]

Vézilier J., Nicot A., de Lorgeril J., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2012) The impact of insecticide resistance onculex pipiens immunity. Evolutionary Applications. 6: 497–509. [pdf] [doi]


Abbot P. & 136 others (2011) Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature. 471(7339): E1-4. [pdf] [doi]

Blanquart F. & Gandon S. (2011) Evolution of migration in a periodically changing environment. The American Naturalist. 177(2): 188-201. [pdf]

Débarre F. & Gandon S. (2011) Evolution in heterogeneous environments: between soft and hard selection. The American Naturalist. 177(3): E84-97. [pdf]


Berngruber T. W., Weissing F. J. & Gandon S. (2010) Inhibition of superinfection and the evolution of viral latency. Journal of Virology. 84(19): 10200-10208. [pdf] [doi]

Débarre F. & Gandon S. (2010) Evolution of specialization in a spatially continuous environnement. Journal of evolutionary Biology. 23: 1090-1099. [pdf]

Lion S. & Gandon S. (2010) Life history, habitat saturation and the evolution of fecundity and survival altruism. Evolution. 64(6): 1594-606. [pdf] [doi]

Martin G. & Gandon S. (2010) Lethal mutagenesis and evolutionary epidemiology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 365: 1953-1963. [pdf] [som]

Patot S., Martinez J., Allemand R., Gandon S., Varaldi J. & Fleury F. (2010) Prevalence of a virus inducing behavioural manipulation near species range border. Molecular Ecology. 19: 2995-3007. [pdf]

Rivero A., Vézilier J., Weill M., Read A. F. & Gandon S. (2010) Insecticide control of vector borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem? PLoS Pathogens. 6: e1001000. [pdf]

Vézilier J., Nicot A., Gandon S. & Rivero A. (2010) Insecticide resistance and malaria transmission: infection rate and oocyst burden in culex pipiens mosquitoes infected with plasmodium relictum. Malaria journal. 9: 379. [pdf]


Débarre F., Lenormand T. & Gandon S. (2009) Evolutionary epidemiology of drug-resistance in space. PLoS Computational Biology. 5: e1000337. Journal du CNRS [pdf]

Gandon S. & Day T. (2009) Evolutionary epidemiology and the dynamics of adaptation. Evolution. 63: 826-838. [pdf]

Gandon S., Varaldi J., Fleury F. & Rivero A. (2009) Evolution and manipulation of parasitoid eggload. Evolution. 63: 2974-2984. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Nuismer S. (2009) Interactions between drift, gene flow, and selection mosaics drive parasite local adaptation. The American Naturalist. 173: 212-224. [pdf]

Lion S. & Gandon S. (2009) Habitat saturation and the spatial evolutionary ecology of altruism. Journal of evolutionary Biology. 22: 1487-1502. [pdf] [doi] [som]

Varaldi J., Patot S., Nardin M. & Gandon S. (2009) A virus shaping reproductive strategy in a Drosophila Parasitoid. Advances in Parasitology. 70: 333-363. [pdf]


Débarre F. & Gandon S. (2008) Epidémiologie évolutive des maladies infectieuses. In: Introduction à l'Epidémiologie Intégrative des Maladies Infectieuses et Parasitaires. (Guégan, J.-F.; Choisy, M., eds.) De Boeck Université, Collection Masters, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique, p. 347-374.

Gandon S. & Day T. (2008) Evidences of parasite evolution after vaccination. Vaccine. 26: C4-C7. [pdf]

Gandon S., Buckling A., Decaestecker E. & Day T. (2008) Host-parasite coevolution and patterns of adaptation across time and space. Journal of evolutionary Biology. 21: 1861-1866. [pdf]

Mackinnon M. J., Gandon S. & Read A. (2008) Virulence evolution in response to vaccination: the case of malaria. Vaccine. 26: C42-C52. [pdf]

Nuismer S. L. & Gandon S. (2008) Moving beyond common garden and transplant designs: insight into the causes of local adaptation in species interactions. The American Naturalist. 171: 658-668. [pdf]


Day T. & Gandon S. (2007) Applying population-genetic models in theoretical evolutionary epidemiology. Ecology Letters. 10: 876-888. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Day T. (2007) The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 4: 803-817. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Otto S. (2007) The evolution of sex and recombination in response to abiotic or coevolutionary fluctuations in epistasis. Genetics. 175: 1835-1853. [pdf]

Poullain V., Gandon S., Brockhurst M., Buckling A. & Hochberg M. (2007) The evolution of specificity in evolving and coevolving antagonistic interactions between bacteria and phage. Evolution. 61: 1-11. [pdf]


André J. B. & Gandon S. (2006) Vaccination, within-host dynamics and virulence evolution. Evolution. 60: 13-23. [pdf]

Day T. & Gandon S. (2006) Insights from Price’s equation into evolutionary epidemiology. In: Disease evolution: models, concepts and data analyses. (Feng, Z. Dieckmann U.; Levin, S., eds.) American Mathematical Society, p. 23-43. [pdf]

Gandon S., Rivero A. & Varaldi J. (2006) Superparasitism evolution: adaptation or manipulation? The American Naturalist. 167: E1-E27. [pdf]

Varaldi J., Gandon S., Rivero A., Patot S. & Fleury F. (2006) A newly discovered virus manipulates superparasitism behaviour in a parasitoid wasp. In: Insect Symbiosis II. (Bourtzis, K.; Miller, T. A., eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, p. 119-139.


Ferguson H., Gandon S., Mackinnon M. J. & Read A. F. (2005) Malaria parasite virulence in mosquitoes. In: Genetically Modified Mosquitoes for Malaria Control. (Boete, C., ed.) Landes Bioscience

Gandon S. (2005) Parasitic manipulation: a theoretical framework may help. Behavioural Processes. 68: 247-248. [pdf]

Morgan A. D., Gandon S. & Buckling A. (2005) The effect of migration on local adaptation in a coevolving host-parasite system. Nature. 437: 253-256. [pdf]


Gandon S. (2004) Evolution of multihost parasites. Evolution. 58: 455-469. [pdf]

Read A. F., Gandon S., Nee S. & Mackinnon M. J. (2004) The evolution of pathogen virulence in response to animal and public health interventions. In: Evolutionary Aspects of Infectious Diseases. (Dronamraj, K., ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 265-292.


Gandon S. & Day T. (2003) A reply to Ebert & Bull (2003): Understanding and managing pathogen evolution: a way forward. Trends in Microbiology. 11: 206-207.

Gandon S., Mackinnon M. J., Nee S. & Read A. F. (2003) Imperfect vaccination: some epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 270: 1129-1136. [pdf]


Gandon S. (2002) Local adaptation and the geometry of host-parasite coevolution. Ecology Letters. 5: 246-256. [pdf]

Gandon S., Mackinnon M. J., Nee S. & Read A. F. (2002) Antitoxin vaccines and pathogen virulence - reply. Nature. 417: 610. [pdf]

Gandon S., Agnew P. & and Michalakis Y. (2002) Coevolution between parasite virulence and host life-history traits. The American Naturalist. 160: 374-388. [pdf]

Gandon S., van Baalen M. & Jansen V. A. A. (2002) The evolution of parasite virulence, superinfection, and host resistance. The American Naturalist. 159: 658-669. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Michalakis Y. (2002) Local adaptation, evolutionary potential and host-parasite coevolution: interactions between migration, mutation, population size and generation time. Journal of evolutionary Biology. 15: 451-462. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Michalakis Y. (2002) Multiple infection and its consequences for virulence management. In: Virulence management: the adaptive dynamics of pathogen-host interactions. (Dieckmann, U.; Metz, J. A. J.; Sabelis, M. W.; Sigmund, K., eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Rousset F. & Gandon S. (2002) Evolution of the distribution of dispersal distance under distance-dependent cost of dispersal. Journal of evolutionary Biology. 15: 515-523. [pdf]


Gandon S., Mackinnon M. J., Nee S. & Read A. F. (2001) Imperfect vaccines and the evolution of pathogen virulence. Nature. 414: 751-756. [pdf]

Gandon S., Jansen V. A. A. & van Baalen M. (2001) Host life history and the evolution of parasite virulence. Evolution. 55: 1056-1062. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Michalakis Y. (2001) Multiple causes of the evolution of dispersal. In: Causes, consequences and mechanisms of dispersal at the individual, population and community level. (Clobert, J.; Nichols, J. D.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A., eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, p. 155-167.


Gandon S. & Michalakis Y. (2000) Evolution of parasite virulence against qualitative or quantitative form of resistance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 267: 985-990. [pdf]

Ronce O., Gandon S. & Rousset F. (2000) Kin selection and natal dispersal in age-structured populations. Theoretical Population Biology. 58: 143-159.


Gandon S. (1999) Kin competition, the cost of inbreeding and the evolution of dispersal. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 200: 345-364. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Michalakis Y. (1999) The evolution of dispersal in a metapopulation with extinction and kin competition. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 199: 275-290. [pdf]

Gandon S. & Rousset F. (1999) The evolution of stepping stone dispersal rates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 266: 2507-2513. [pdf]

Kaltz O., Gandon S., Michalakis Y. & Shykoff J. (1999) Local maladaptation in the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum to its host plant Silene latifolia: evidence from a cross-inoculation experiment. Evolution. 53: 395-407.


Gandon S. (1998) The curse of the pharaoh hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 265: 1545-1552. [pdf]

Gandon S., Ebert D., Olivieri I. & Michalakis Y. (1998) Differential adaptation in spatially heterogeneous environments and host-parasite coevolution. In: Genetic Structure and Local adaptation in natural insect populations. (Mopper, S.; Strauss, S., eds.) Chapman and Hall, New York, NJ, USA, p. 325-340.

Gandon S. & Van Zandt P. A. (1998) Local adaptation and host-parasite interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 13: 214-216. [pdf]

Godelle B. & 10 others (1998) Système génétique, polymorphisme neutre et sélectionné : implications en biologie de la conservation. Genetics Selection Evolution. 30: S15-S28.


Gandon S., Capowiez Y., Dubois Y., Michalakis Y. & Olivieri I. (1996) Local adaptation and gene-for-gene coevolution in a metapopulation model. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 263: 1003-1009. [pdf]

Gandon S., Ebert D. & Michalakis Y. (1996) Metapopulations and local adaptation in host-parasite interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 11: 431.

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